Tag Archives: IANA

ICANN: Global Policy Proposal for Post Exhaustion IPv4 Allocation Mechanisms by IANA – Background Report, 25 April 2011

Purpose of this document

This document provides a background report on the progress of an active Global Policy proposal. It is intended as a background briefing for the ICANN Board and the wider community.

Introduction

Global Internet Number Resource Policies are defined by the ASO MOU – between ICANN and the NRO – as “Internet number resource policies that have the agreement of all RIRs according to their policy development processes and ICANN, and require specific actions or outcomes on the part of IANA or any other external ICANN-related body in order to be implemented”. Attachment A of this MOU describes the Development Process of Global Internet Number Resource Policies, including the adoption by every RIR of a global policy to be forwarded to the ICANN Board by the ASO, as well as its ratification by the ICANN Board. In this context, the ICANN Board adopted its own Procedures for the Review of Internet Number Resource Policies Forwarded by the ASO for Ratification.

Among other features, these Procedures state that the Board will decide, as and when appropriate, that ICANN staff should follow the development of a particular global policy, undertaking an “early awareness” tracking of proposals in the addressing community. To this end, staff should issue background reports periodically, forwarded to the Board, to all ICANN Supporting Organizations and Advisory Committees and posted at the ICANN web site.

At its meeting on 21 April 2011, the Board resolved to request tracking of the development of a “Global Policy for post exhaustion IPv4 allocation mechanisms by the IANA”, under discussion in the addressing community. The status overview presented below is compiled in response to this request and will be further updated as developments proceed, for information to ICANN entities and the wider community. This is the first background report on this proposal.

Status Overview

The purpose of the proposal is to enable IANA to allocate returned IPv4 blocks to RIRs. IANA would place IPv4 blocks returned by the RIRs in a Recovered IPv4 Pool. This Pool would be declared active when one RIR has less than half its last /8 left. IANA would then allocate an “IPv4 allocation unit” (minimum size /24) to each RIR, if the Pool size so permits. If the space available in the Pool is too limited, allocation would be deferred in 6 month intervals until space is available.

Following list discussions over slightly different draft versions early in 2011, the second version of this global policy proposal was first formally introduced in the APNIC region on 20 February 2011 and has since been introduced on the policy mailing lists of all the other RIRs. The proposal is in last call in APNIC and in discussion in the other RIRs.

Process history

On 3 February 2011, the ASO AC recognized the proposal as fulfilling the formal requirements as a candidate for a Global Policy.

Once the proposal has been adopted in all RIRs, i.e. AfriNIC, APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC and RIPE, the proposal will be handled by the NRO EC and the ASO AC according to their procedures before being submitted to the ICANN Board for ratification.

As a background to this policy proposal, it should be noted that a previous proposal for handling recovered IPv4 address space, “Global Policy Proposal for the Allocation of IPv4 Blocks to Regional Internet Registries” was introduced in 2009 but abandoned by the NRO EC in view of version differences across the RIRs. For more information on that proposal, see the corresponding background report. That proposal is denoted as the first proposal in the table below.

Also, a second proposal on this theme “Global Policy Proposal for the Allocation of IPv4 by IANA Post Exhaustion” was introduced in 2010. This proposal was rapidly adopted in ARIN, but abandoned in APNIC and withdrawn in RIPE, making it unlikely that the proposal would advance to become a global policy. For more information on that proposal, see the corresponding background report. That proposal is denoted as the second proposal in the table below.

The proposal that is the object of the current background report – for direct access to the proposal text click here [TXT, 12 KB] – is denoted as the third proposal in the table below, where the significant differences between the proposals are summarized.

Proposal/features Third proposal Second proposal First proposal
RIR return to IANA Not mentioned Voluntary Mandatory vs. voluntary
RIR Eligibility Simultaneous for all RIRs Per RIR, when it has less than a /8 in stock Simultaneous for all RIRs
ASO reference GPP-IPv4-2011 GPP-IPv4-2010 GPP-IPv4-2009

An overview of these proposals is also provided on the ASO website, see http://aso.icann.org/global-policy-proposals/

The table below outlines the steps taken within each RIR for the current proposal. Hyperlinks are included for easy access.

Status of Global Policy Proposal for Post Exhaustion IPv4 Allocation Mechanisms by IANA (GPP-IPv4-2011)

RIR AfriNIC APNIC ARIN LACNIC RIPE
Proposal Introduced 7 Feb 2011
list message
25 Jan 2011
list message prop-097

20 Feb 2011
version 2

8 Mar 2011
list message prop 137
18 Mar 2011
list message prop 2011-05
21 Mar 2011
list message prop 2011-01
Discussion list Resource Policy Disc. List SIG-Policy Public Policy Mailing List Politicas – Policy Mailing List Address Policy WG
Public Forum APNIC 31 21 – 25 Feb 2011 consensus
Final Call for Comments 1 Mar – 26 Apr 2011
Next Public

Forum

AfriNIC 14 (to be announced) APNIC 32 29 Aug – 2 Sept 2011 ARIN XXVIII 12 – 14 Oct 2011 LACNIC XV 15 – 20 May 2011 RIPE 62 2 – 6 May 2011
Adoption
Link to document prop-097-v002 Proposal 137 LAC-2011-05 (EN)

LAC-2011-05 (ES)

LAC-2011-05 (PT)

Proposal 2011 – 01
Link to Policy Development Process Policy Development Process Policy Development Process Policy Development Process Policy Development Process Policy Development Process
Status In discussion In final call In discussion In discussion In discussion

This ICANN background report was sourced from:
icann.org/en/announcements/announcement-26apr11-en.htm

.XXX Now Live!

The IANA added the .XXX Top Level Domain to the root nameservers yesterday, meaning that when ICM Registry, and its registry operator Afilias, are ready they can begin registrations of .XXX domain names.Domain Incite reports that “sex.xxx and porn.xxx are now also resolving to placeholder sites.”IANA have published their report on the “Delegation of the .XXX top-level domain” at www.iana.org/reports/2011/xxx-report-20110407.pdf. The report gives a detailed background into the application process.For more information, see the Domain Incite report here.

US Government Reviews IANA And Flags Issues For Possible Change

The US government is seeking public comment to enhance the performance of the IANA functions in the development and award of a new IANA functions contract.The call comes via a Request for Comments from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, part of the Department of Commerce. The NTIA notes “this is the first time NTIA has undertaken a comprehensive review of the IANA functions contract since the award of the first contract in 2000.”The RFC flags some interesting changes to IANA, including the possible break-up of the IANA functions, saying that “in light of technology changes and market developments, should the IANA functions continue to be treated as interdependent?”Other issues considered important are the stability and security of the DNS and whether “the current metrics and reporting requirements sufficient?”The IANA functions have historically included the following:

  1. The coordination of the assignment of technical Internet protocol parameters
  2. the administration of certain responsibilities associated with Internet DNS root zone management
  3. the allocation of Internet numbering resources
  4. other services related to the management of the .ARPA and .INT top-level domains.

ICANN currently performs these IANA roles on behalf of the United States Government through a contract with NTIA. The contract between the US government and ICANN expires on 30 September 2011 so the NTIA is seeking public comment to enhance the performance of the IANA functions in the development and award of a new IANA functions contract.Comments are due on or before March 31, 2011.More information can be found at www.ntia.doc.gov/frnotices/2011/fr_ianafunctionsnoi_02252011.pdf

ICANN: Global Policy Proposal for the Allocation of IPv4 by IANA Post Exhaustion – Background Report

(Proposal for handling recovered IPv4 address space)

Introduction

Global Internet Number Resource Policies are defined by the ASO MOU – between ICANN and the NRO – as “Internet number resource policies that have the agreement of all RIRs according to their policy development processes and ICANN, and require specific actions or outcomes on the part of IANA or any other external ICANN-related body in order to be implemented”. Attachment A of this MOU describes the Development Process of Global Internet Number Resource Policies, including the adoption by every RIR of a global policy to be forwarded to the ICANN Board by the ASO, as well as its ratification by the ICANN Board. In this context, the ICANN Board adopted its own Procedures for the Review of Internet Number Resource Policies Forwarded by the ASO for Ratification.

Among other features, these Procedures state that the Board will decide, as and when appropriate, that ICANN staff should follow the development of a particular global policy, undertaking an “early awareness” tracking of proposals in the addressing community. To this end, staff should issue background reports periodically, forwarded to the Board, to all ICANN Supporting Organizations and Advisory Committees and posted at the ICANN Web site.

At its meeting on 25 January 2011, the Board resolved to request tracking of the development of a Global Policy Proposal for the Allocation of IPv4 by the IANA Post Exhaustion, under discussion in the addressing community. The status overview presented below is compiled in response to this request and will be further updated as developments proceed, for information to ICANN entities and the wider community. This is the first issue of the tracking of this policy.

Status Overview

The purpose of the proposal is to enable IANA to allocate returned IPv4 blocks to RIRs after the exhaustion of the IANA free pool of IPv4 /8 address blocks. IANA would serve as repository for IPv4 blocks returned by the RIRs and place them in a separate Reclamation Pool. Once this Reclamation Pool is declared active, IANA would allocate blocks of any size to the RIRs according to need. An RIR would qualify for allocation once its own supply of /8 blocks is exhausted.

Following list discussions over slightly different draft versions in the spring of 2010, the current version of the global policy proposal draft was first formally introduced in the ARIN region on 20 July 2010 and has since been introduced in all the other RIRs. The proposal has been adopted in ARIN and is currently in the discussion phase in the other RIRs.

On 22 June 2010, the ASO AC recognized the proposal as fulfilling the formal requirements as a candidate for a Global Policy.

Once the proposal has been adopted in all RIRs, i.e. ARIN, AfriNIC, LACNIC, RIPE and APNIC, the proposal will be handled by the NRO EC and the ASO AC according to their procedures before being submitted to the ICANN Board for ratification.

As a background to this policy proposal, it should be noted that a previous proposal for handling recovered IPv4 address space, “Global Policy Proposal for the Allocation of IPv4 Blocks to Regional Internet Registries” was introduced in 2009 but abandoned by the NRO EC in view of version differences across the RIRs. For more information on that proposal, see the corresponding background report.

The table below outlines the steps taken within each RIR for the current proposal. Hyperlinks are included for easy access.

Status of current proposal

RIR AfriNIC APNIC ARIN LACNIC RIPE
Proposal Introduced 25 Aug 2010
list message
23 July 2010
list message prop-086-v001

23 Dec 2010
list msg v002

20 July 2010
list message prop 2010-10
6 Sep 2010
List message prop 2010-04
23 Aug 2010
list message prop 2010-05

15 Dec 2010
version 2

Discussion list Resource Policy Disc. List SIG-Policy Public Policy Mailing List Politicas – Policy Mailing List Address Policy WG
Public Forum AfriNIC 13 20 – 26 Nov 2010

APNIC 30 24 – 27 Aug 2010

ARIN XXVI 6 – 8 Oct 2010

LACNIC XIV 19 -22 Oct 2010 RIPE 61 15 – 19 Nov 2010

Final Call for Comments 29 Oct – 12 Nov 2010
Next Public Forum AfriNIC 14 (to be announced) APNIC 31 21 – 25 Feb 2011 ARIN XXVII 10 – 13 Apr 2011 LACNIC XV 15 – 20 May 2011 RIPE 62 2 – 6 May 2011
Adoption Adopted by ARIN Board 12 Jan 2011
Link to document AFPUB-2010-v4-003 prop-086-v002 Draft policy 2010-10 LAC-2010-04 (EN) [PDF, 37 KB]
LAC-2010-04 (ES) [PDF, 38 KB]
LAC-2010-04 (PT) [PDF, 110 KB]
Proposal 2010 – 05
Link to Policy Development Process Policy Development Process Policy Development Process Policy Development Process Policy Development Process Policy Development Process
Status In discussion In discussion Adopted In discussion In discussion

This ICANN report was sourced from:
icann.org/en/announcements/announcement-11feb11-en.htm

IPv4 Addresses Dwindling Fast as Final Blocks Soon To Be Allocated

With the handing out of two large blocks of IPv4 addresses to the Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre, a rule has been activated that sees the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority allocating the last of the IPv4 addresses.These IP addresses, as explained by the Wall Street Journal, “are numerical labels that direct online traffic to the right location, similar to the way a letter makes its way through the postal system. Such routing is generally invisible to users — when they type in www.facebook.com, for instance, they are actually connected to a computer located at the numerical address 66.220.149.32. It is those numbers that are in dwindling supply.”When the addressing system for the internet was developed in the 1970s, IPv4 was introduced that allowed for about 4.3 billion possible addresses, which was deemed to be more than adequate. However with the number of devices connecting to the internet skyrocketing over the years, something that was difficult to foresee, the available addresses have been depleted to almost none.For example, the number of available addresses has dropped from more than one billion in June 2006 to just 117 million in December 2010, according to the American Registry for Internet Numbers, reported the Wall Street Journal. With the adoption of IPv6 addresses, there is an almost unlimited supply of addresses.The addresses allocated this week were the final allocation made by IANA under the current framework and will trigger the final distribution of five /8 blocks, one to each RIR under the agreed “Global policy for the allocation of the remaining IPv4 address space”.This policy sees one of each the five remaining blocks allocated by the IANA to each of the Regional Internet Registries. After these final allocations, APNIC noted in an announcement that each RIR will continue to make allocations according to their own established policies.APNIC expects normal allocations to continue for a further three to six months. After this time, APNIC will continue to make small allocations from the last /8 block, guided by section 9.10 in “Policies for IPv4 address space management in the Asia Pacific region”. This policy ensures that IPv4 address space is available for IPv6 transition.It is expected that these allocations will continue for at least another five years.For future internet use and the growth of the internet, it is imperative that all members of the internet industry to move quickly towards the deployment of IPv6 addresses.For more information, see:
online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704254304576116401267588510.html
www.apnic.net/publications/news/2011/delegation
icann.org/en/general/allocation-remaining-ipv4-space.htm

Potential Impacts on Communications from IPv4 Exhaustion & IPv6 Transition by Robert Cannon, Federal Communications Commission; Cybertelecom

Abstract: The Internet is in transition. The original address space, IPv4, is nearly exhausted; the Internet is in the progress of migrating to the new IPv6 address space. Continue reading Potential Impacts on Communications from IPv4 Exhaustion & IPv6 Transition by Robert Cannon, Federal Communications Commission; Cybertelecom

Potential Impacts on Communications from IPv4 Exhaustion & IPv6 Transition by Robert Cannon, Federal Communications Commission; Cybertelecom

Abstract: The Internet is in transition. The original address space, IPv4, is nearly exhausted; the Internet is in the progress of migrating to the new IPv6 address space.The Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) developed in the late 1970s has the capacity for about 4 billion unique addresses. It would have been hard to imagine in the 1970s that 4 billion addresses were not going to be enough. But by the early 1990s, Internet engineers recognized that the supply of addresses was relatively limited compared to likely demand, and they set to work designing a successor to IPv4. They developed a new Internet Protocol, IPv6, with a vastly increased address space: 340 trillion trillion trillion addresses.Broadband Internet access has become essential to the United States and the rest of the world. The exhaustion of IPv4 addresses and the transition to IPv6 could result in significant, but not insurmountable, problems for broadband Internet services. In the short term, to permit the network to continue to grow, engineers have developed a series of kludges. These kludges include more efficient use of the IPv4 address resource, conservation, and the sharing of IPv4 addresses through the use of Network Address Translation (NAT). While these provide partial mitigation for IPv4 exhaustion, they are not a long-term solution, increase network costs, and merely postpone some of the consequences of address exhaustion without solving the underlying problem. Some of these fixes break end-to-end connectivity, impairing innovation and hampering applications, degrading network performance, and resulting in an inferior version of the Internet. These kludges require capital investment and ongoing operational costs by network service providers, diverting investment from other business objectives. Network operators will be confronted with increased costs to offer potentially inferior service.The short term solutions are necessary because there is not enough time to completely migrate the entire public Internet to “native IPv6” where end users can communicate entirely via IPv6. Network protocol transitions require significant work and investment, and with the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses looming, there is insufficient time to complete the full IPv6 transition.But the short-term solutions are problematic. The “solution to the solution” is to complete the transition to a native IPv6 network. A native IPv6 network will restore end-to-end connectivity with a vastly expanded address space, will improve network performance, and should decrease costs. Completing the transition of the public Internet to IPv6 will take time.To read this FCC article in full, see:
ssrn.com/abstract=1735456

.KP Going Back Online After Few Months Offline

.KP domain names, North Korea’s country code, could be back online after being offline for some months reports PC World.

A number of .KP domain names became unavailable in the third quarter of 2010 according to the report with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) pointing the ccTLD to new servers in a first step toward bringing it back online.

“The new servers do not yet appear to be online, but IANA’s records now point to North Korean Internet addresses. The servers carry the “kptc.kp” name, which is probably a reference to Korea Posts and Telecommunications Corp., the country’s official telecommunications carrier.”

To read the PC World report in full, see:
www.pcworld.com/businesscenter/article/215412/.html

IPv4 Address Pool Shrinks to a Perilous New Low Level

The number of IPv4 addresses remaining has shrunk to 6.25 per cent of the total address pool in June from what was already considered a low ten per cent of IPv4 addresses unallocated in January according to a statement on the ARIN website from their president and CEO John Curran.ARIN has used statistics from the Number Resource Organization (NRO) and notes that since January IANA allocations to the five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs – of which ARIN is one) has reduced the remaining pool of addresses to just over six percent of addresses, with an anticipated run out in 2011 although with IANA policy to automatically give one address space block to each of the registries when the address pool reaches a certain level, the free pool of addresses could be depleted overnight.ARIN has made an urgent plea to encourage all organisations to adopt IPv6. However please have been made for several years for organisation to adopt IPv6 and each one seems to fall on deaf ears!Demand for IPv4 addresses have plateaued in North America while growth is still strong in the Asian region. And it is this demand in Asia that saw in the first half of 2010, IANA allocate more IPv4 addresses to the registries than in all of 2009 according to a Network World report.ARIN note they have been allocating IPv6 addresses since 1999 and has been actively advocating the need to deploy IPv6. In 2007, the ARIN Board of Trustees resolved to educate and inform the Internet community regarding IPv4 depletion and the increasing need to adopt IPv6. This resolution became part of a larger IPv6 outreach campaign to encourage those currently running IPv4 to begin adopting IPv6. As part of their campaign, in April of 2009 ARIN contacted by certified letter the CEOs of organisations in North America that currently hold IPv4 resources in its region to raise executive awareness of IPv4 depletion and IPv6 adoption.Without IPv6, ARIN say the internet’s expansion and innovation could be limited. Delaying IPv6 deployment may strain the work of Internet operators, application developers, and end users everywhere. Furthermore, organizations whose business model is dependent on availability of IP addresses may find their growth limited without adopting production IPv6.For more information, ARIN host the IPv6 Wiki to facilitate discussion and information sharing on IPv6 adoption topics and issues at www.getipv6.info. And for more information on ARIN, see www.arin.net.

IANA Continuity Exercise Report Published

ICANN logoICANN is today releasing the After Action Report [PDF, 248 KB] from the IANA Business Continuity Exercise conducted on 19 January 2010. The exercise was discussed during the ICANN Nairobi meeting.

The primary objective of the exercise was to restore the production systems enumerated in the IANA Business Continuity Plan within four hours from the declaration of an incident, leveraging staff based outside of ICANN’s Marina del Rey office and ICANN’s Reston, Virginia, US hot site. Secondary objectives included validating several newly implemented communications and technical systems and processes.

The exercise was deemed a success in that most critical systems were restored within the first 30 minutes of the exercise and all systems were restored within 90 minutes. This is well within the four-hour timeframe. Additionally, stakeholders indicated that internal and external communications were appropriate and well received, and new procedures and systems functioned well.

The exercise was part of ICANN’s overall program for continuity and contingency testing, as well as on-going efforts related to IANA Business Excellence. Previous exercise After Action Reports are available at: