The last of North America’s IPv4 addresses has been allocated from the “free pool”, the body responsible for allocating internet protocol addresses in North America, the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) announced.There are addresses that will continue to become available, and ARIN will continue to process and approve requests for IPv4 address blocks. Those approved requests may be fulfilled via the Wait List for Unmet IPv4 Requests, or through the IPv4 Transfer Market.On the transfer market, there are reports that IPv4 addresses have been selling for $10-12 each according to IDG.But the depletion of IPv4 addresses is spurring on IPv6 adoption. The latest State of the Internet report from Akamai shows that in the second quarter of 2015 “reversing the trend seen in the first quarter, the number of unique IPv4 addresses worldwide connecting to Akamai dropped by about 8.6 million in the second quarter. Six of the top 10 countries saw a quarterly decline in unique IPv4 address counts in the second quarter, compared with three in the previous quarter.”On IPv6 growth, the report shows “European countries continued to dominate the 10 countries/regions with the largest percentage of content requests made to Akamai over IPv6 in the second quarter of 2015. Similar to previous quarters, Belgium maintained its clear lead, with 38% of content requests being made over IPv6. Switzerland (23%) saw the largest increase, enjoying a 168% jump over the previous quarter, moving into second place globally, with nearly a quarter of content requests coming over IPv6. As with the previous quarter, the only two non-European counties among the top 10 were the U.S. and Peru, both of which saw significant double-digit quarterly improvements to adoption rates of 19% and 17%, respectively.”Further, BT announced that by the end of 2016 its entire network will be able to use IPv6 according to BBC News and in India, the Kerala government has rolled out a roadmap to implement Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) across the state, reported the Financial Express.
The need to adopt IPv6 became a little more urgent this week when ARIN was unable to meet a request for IPv4 addresses.The request, the American Registry for Internet Numbers said, was larger than the available inventory in the regional IPv4 free pool.”If you take a smaller block, you can’t come back for more address space for 90 days,” John Curran, CEO of ARIN, told ArsTechnica. “We currently have nearly 500 small blocks remaining, but we handle 300 to 400 requests per month, [so] those remaining small blocks are going to last between two and four weeks.”ARIN allocates addresses for Canada, the USA and North Atlantic and Caribbean islands, has now joined its counterparts being unable to meet demand for IPv4 addresses. It has also seen companies willing to spend large amounts to purchase IPv4 addresses. For example, back in 2011 Microsoft paid Nortel $7.5m for 666,624 IPv4 addresses.ARIN still has limited amounts of IPv4 address space available in smaller block sizes and they encourage customers to monitor the IPv4 Inventory Counter on the ARIN homepage and the breakdown of the remaining IPv4 inventory found on their IPv4 Depletion page:
https://www.arin.net/resources/request/ipv4_countdown.htmlOrganisations needing larger amounts of address space are encouraged to make use of the IPv4 transfer market for those needs. ARIN is also reminding organisations of the ample availability of IPv6 address space, and encourages organisations to evaluate IPv6 address space for their ongoing public internet network activities.
Registration is now open for the ARIN 35 Public Policy and Members Meeting, 12-15 April 2015 at the JW Marriott San Francisco Union Square.
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Communications and Member Services
American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)
This ARIN announcement was sourced from:
[announcement] ARIN is down to its final /8 of available space in its inventory and has moved into Phase Four of its IPv4 Countdown Plan. Â All IPv4 requests are now subject to Countdown Plan processes, so please review the following details carefully.
All IPv4 requests will be processed on a “First in, First out” basis, and all requests of any size will be subject to team review, and requests for /15 or larger will require department director approval.Â ARIN’s resource analysts will respond to tickets as they appear chronologically in the queue. Each ticket response is treated as an individual transaction, so the completion time of a single request may vary based on customer response times and the number of requests waiting in the queue. Because each correspondence will be processed in sequence, it is possible that response times may exceed our usual two-day turnaround.
The hold period for returned, reclaimed, and revoked blocks is now reduced to 60 days. All returned, revoked, and reclaimed IPv4 address space will go back into the available pool when the 60 day period has expired. Staff will continue to check routing/filtering on space being reissued and will notify recipients if there are issues.
When a request is approved, the recipient will have 60 days to complete payment and/or an RSA. On the 61st day, the address space will be released back to the available pool if payment and RSA are not completed.
We encourage you to visit the IPv4 Countdown Phase Four page at:
ARIN may experience situations where it can no longer fulfill qualifying IPv4 requests due to a lack of inventory of the desired block size.Â At that time, the requester may opt to accept the largest available block size or they may ask to be placed on the Waiting List for Unmet Requests.Â Full details about this process are available at:
This ARIN announcement was sourced from:
[news release] The Number Resource Organization (NRO) is celebrating its first decade as the coordinating body for the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). Formalized through a Memorandum of UnderstandingÂ on 24 October 2003, the NRO was created by the four existing RIRs at the time: APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC, and the RIPE NCC, and later AFRINIC in 2005. The NRO was established to protect the unallocated Internet number resource pool, promote and protect the bottom-up policy development process for regional and global address management, and act as a focal point for Internet community input into the RIR system.
During the last ten years the NRO collaborated with a wide range of stakeholders to ensure the future growth and continued stability of the Internet, in particular, emphasizing the global transition to IPv6. The NRO is committed to continuing this cooperation and engages with intergovernmental associations and civil society groups in the interest of Internet development. As a key supporter of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) and the multistakeholder model of Internet governance, the NRO recently participated in the IGF 2013 in Bali, organizing two workshops and contributing to a number of forums.
As the Internet has grown and evolved, so has the NRO. Following a September strategic retreat in Montevideo, Uruguay, the NRO Executive Council (EC) announced the following Vision and Mission to guide the NROâs activities:
The Vision is:
âTo be the flagship and global leader for collaborative Internet number resource management as a central element of an open, stable, and secure Internet.â
The Mission is:
âTo actively contribute to an open, stable, and secure Internet, through:
- Providing and promoting a coordinated Internet number registry system
- Being an authoritative voice on the multistakeholder model and bottom-up policy process in Internet governance
- Coordinating and supporting the activities of the RIRsâ
âThe Vision and Mission represents the NROâs continued commitment to work towards improving multistakeholder Internet cooperation,â said Paul Wilson, NRO EC Chair. âAs the Internet continues to evolve and become a critical tool for communication and commerce at a national and global level, itâs vital that the Internet coordination community work with governments and other stakeholders as equal stewards for an Internet in the public trust.â
This NRO news release was sourced from:
The leaders of organizations responsible for coordination of the Internet technical infrastructure globally have met in Montevideo, Uruguay, to consider current issues affecting the future of the Internet.
The Internet and World Wide Web have brought major benefits in social and economic development worldwide. Both have been built and governed in the public interest through unique mechanisms for global multistakeholder Internet cooperation, which have been intrinsic to their success. The leaders discussed the clear need to continually strengthen and evolve these mechanisms, in truly substantial ways, to be able to address emerging issues faced by stakeholders in the Internet.
In this sense:
- They reinforced the importance of globally coherent Internet operations, and warned against Internet fragmentation at a national level. They expressed strong concern over the undermining of the trust and confidence of Internet users globally due to recent revelations of pervasive monitoring and surveillance.
- They identified the need for ongoing effort to address Internet Governance challenges, and agreed to catalyze community-wide efforts towards the evolution of global multistakeholder Internet cooperation.
- They called for accelerating the globalization of ICANN and IANA functions, towards an environment in which all stakeholders, including all governments, participate on an equal footing.
- They also called for the transition to IPv6 to remain a top priority globally. In particular Internet content providers must serve content with both IPv4 and IPv6 services, in order to be fully reachable on the global Internet.
Adiel A. Akplogan, CEO
African Network Information Center (AFRINIC)
John Curran, CEO
American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)
Paul Wilson, Director General
Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC)
Russ Housley, Chair
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
Fadi ChehadÃ©, President and CEO
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
Jari Arkko, Chair
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Lynn St. Amour, President and CEO
Internet Society (ISOC)
RaÃºl EcheberrÃa, CEO
Latin America and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry (LACNIC)
Axel Pawlik, Managing Director
RÃ©seaux IP EuropÃ©ens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC)
Jeff Jaffe, CEO
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
- To read this announcement in Spanish, please visit: www.icann.org/es/news/press/releases/release-07oct13-es
- To read this announcement in French, please visit: www.icann.org/fr/news/press/releases/release-07oct13-fr
- To read this announcement in Arabic, please visit: www.icann.org/ar/news/press/releases/release-07oct13-ar
- To read this announcement in Russian, please visit: www.icann.org/ru/news/press/releases/release-07oct13-ru
- To read this announcement in Chinese, please visit: www.icann.org/zh/news/press/releases/release-07oct13-zh
This announcement was sourced from the ICANN web site at:
IPv6 adoption continues to grow with Akamai Technologies observing a 2.1 per cent increase (from the third quarter of 2011) globally in the number of unique IPv4 addresses connecting to Akamai’s network, growing to over 628 million, in their most recent State of the Internet report.In the fourth quarter of 2011, over 628 million unique IPv4 addresses, from 236 countries/regions, connected to the Akamai Intelligent Platform – 2.1% more than in the third quarter of 2011, and nearly 13% more than in the fourth quarter of 2010. Although we see more than 600 million unique IPv4 addresses, Akamai believes that we see well over one billion Web users. This is because, in some cases, multiple individuals may be represented by a single IPv4 address (or a small number of IPv4 addresses), because they access the Web through a firewall or proxy server. Conversely, individual users can have multiple IPv4 addresses associated with them, due to their use of multiple connected devices.IPv4 exhaustion continues with the number of available IPv4 addresses continued to decline, as Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) allocated/assigned blocks of addresses to requesting organisations within their respective territories.The report notes austerity measures employed by APNIC as it reached its final /8 (16.8 million IPv4 addresses) block on 15 April leading to APNIC allocating the lowest volume of IPv4 addresses assigned during the fourth quarter. Of the other RIRs, AFRINIC’s IPv4 exhaustion proceeded slowly during the fourth quarter as well while LACNIC allocated/assigned over 2.5 million IPv4 addresses during the quarter, with over half a million allocated on November 7. In contrast, RIPE was significantly more active, assigning or allocating more than 200,000 IPv4 addresses on many days during the quarter, peaking at 883,968 IPv4 addresses on 1 December. However, in comparison, ARIN’s activity was much more subdued during the quarter.Recognising that IPv4 address space is a valuable commodity, the report notes bankrupt bookseller Borders announced a plan in December 2011 to sell 65,536 IPv4 addresses (a “/16″”) to Cerner, a healthcare software vendor for $786,432, or $12 per address. Akamai believes this was the second publicly announced sale of IPv4 space, after Nortel’s sale of $7.5 million worth of addresses to Microsoft in April.Projected exhaustion dates for the various registries range from August 2012 for RIPE to all the way out in October 2014 for AFRINIC.On IPv6 adoption, the report notes there were higher rates of growth seen during the second quarter of 2011, and commensurately lower growth rates seen in the third and fourth quarters that may be related to preparations for World IPv6 Day (8 June, 2011), organised by the Internet Society as a 24-hour “test flight” of IPv6 for real-world use under controlled conditions. Building on the success of this event, the Internet Society is coordinating World IPv6 Launch on June 6, 2012.The report examines a range of issues dealing with the internet. One is broadband adoption. The report found global average connection speed was 2.3 Mbps, and the global average peak connection speed remained 11.7 Mbps.At a country level, South Korea had the highest average connection speed at 17.5 Mbps, as well as the highest average peak connection speed, at 47.9 Mbps. At a city level, cities in South Korea and Japan continued to hold many of the top spots in the rankings of highest average and average peak connection speeds.Globally, high broadband (>5 Mbps) adoption declined slightly to 27 per cent in the fourth quarter, and South Korea continued to have the highest level of high broadband adoption, growing to 83 per cent. Global broadband (>2 Mbps) adoption remained at 66 per cent, with the Isle of Man having the highest level of broadband adoption, at 97 per cent. Global narrowband (<256 kbps) adoption continued to decline, losing a bit more than one percent quarter-over-quarter, but staying at 2.5 per cent.On mobile broadband and connectivity, the report observed overall fourth quarter attack traffic from known mobile networks increased slightly, with the top ten countries generating 78% of observed attacks. The list of top targeted ports remained mostly consistent with the third quarter -- Port 8080 (HTTP Alternate) replaced Port 4899 (Remote Administrator) among the top 10. Port 445 remained the target of an overwhelming majority of observed attacks as compared to other ports in the top 10.In the fourth quarter of 2011, average connection speeds on known mobile providers ranged from 5.2 Mbps down to 163 kbps. Average peak connection speeds during the quarter ranged from 23.4 Mbps to 1.6 Mbps. Looking at mobile content consumption, users on eight mobile providers consumed, on average, more than one gigabyte (1 GB) of content from Akamai per month, while users on an additional 75 mobile providers downloaded more than 100 MB of content from Akamai per month during the fourth quarter.More detailed information on the above and much more are available in Akamai Technologies’ State of the Internet report. A news release of the highlights is available from www.akamai.com/html/about/press/releases/2012/press_043012.html while a 50+ page report is available for download from www.akamai.com/stateoftheinternet.
[news release] As announced last year, after the 2010 survey results were presented, GNKS Consult is working with the RIPE NCC and NRO to repeat the global 2010 survey on the current and future use of IPv6.
The IPv6 Deployment Monitoring Survey is now online, and we encourage all members of the ARIN community to participate. The survey is available at www.surveymonkey.com/s/GlobalIPv6survey2011.
The purpose of the survey is to develop a better understanding of where the community is moving, and what can be done to ensure the Internet community is ready for the widespread adoption of IPv6. There has been little change to the survey since it was carried out in 2009 (only RIPE and APNIC) and 2010 (global), which will make comparison of progress possible. The results of previous surveys showed that community participation does contribute to a better understanding: more than 90% of last year’s over 1600 respondents indicated that they were interested in participating again in 2011.
We encourage all organizations to participate in this survey, which we hope will establish a comprehensive view of present IPv6 penetration and future plans for IPv6 deployment. The survey is composed of 23 questions and can be completed in about 15 minutes. For those without IPv6 allocations or assignments, or who have not yet deployed IPv6, the questions will be fewer in number.
Results of the IPv6 Deployment Monitoring Survey will be presented and discussed widely, with the support of your RIR. Results for the 2010 Global IPv6 Deployment Monitoring Survey 2010 can be found at
There is also a comparison report prepared for RIPE NCC that looks at changes between the 2010 global survey and the 2009 IPv6 Deployment Monitoring Survey that only took place in the RIPE NCC and APNIC regions. This can be found at:
Results of the 2009 survey, including a comparison of RIPE and APNIC regional results, can be found at ripe59.ripe.net/presentations/botterman-v6-survey.pdf.
Please provide your name and contact information on the survey form if you wish to receive the draft survey analysis when it is completed. Please also indicate whether you are willing to share additional data with the TNO and GNKS Consult IPv6 Deployment Monitoring team.
The survey will close on 31 July 2011. On behalf of ARIN and GNKS Consulting, we thank you for your time and interest in completing this survey. If you have any questions concerning the survey, please send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Communications and Member Services
American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)
This ARIN announcement was sourced from:
Abstract: The Internet is in transition. The original address space, IPv4, is nearly exhausted; the Internet is in the progress of migrating to the new IPv6 address space. Continue reading Potential Impacts on Communications from IPv4 Exhaustion & IPv6 Transition by Robert Cannon, Federal Communications Commission; Cybertelecom
Abstract: The Internet is in transition. The original address space, IPv4, is nearly exhausted; the Internet is in the progress of migrating to the new IPv6 address space.The Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) developed in the late 1970s has the capacity for about 4 billion unique addresses. It would have been hard to imagine in the 1970s that 4 billion addresses were not going to be enough. But by the early 1990s, Internet engineers recognized that the supply of addresses was relatively limited compared to likely demand, and they set to work designing a successor to IPv4. They developed a new Internet Protocol, IPv6, with a vastly increased address space: 340 trillion trillion trillion addresses.Broadband Internet access has become essential to the United States and the rest of the world. The exhaustion of IPv4 addresses and the transition to IPv6 could result in significant, but not insurmountable, problems for broadband Internet services. In the short term, to permit the network to continue to grow, engineers have developed a series of kludges. These kludges include more efficient use of the IPv4 address resource, conservation, and the sharing of IPv4 addresses through the use of Network Address Translation (NAT). While these provide partial mitigation for IPv4 exhaustion, they are not a long-term solution, increase network costs, and merely postpone some of the consequences of address exhaustion without solving the underlying problem. Some of these fixes break end-to-end connectivity, impairing innovation and hampering applications, degrading network performance, and resulting in an inferior version of the Internet. These kludges require capital investment and ongoing operational costs by network service providers, diverting investment from other business objectives. Network operators will be confronted with increased costs to offer potentially inferior service.The short term solutions are necessary because there is not enough time to completely migrate the entire public Internet to “native IPv6” where end users can communicate entirely via IPv6. Network protocol transitions require significant work and investment, and with the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses looming, there is insufficient time to complete the full IPv6 transition.But the short-term solutions are problematic. The “solution to the solution” is to complete the transition to a native IPv6 network. A native IPv6 network will restore end-to-end connectivity with a vastly expanded address space, will improve network performance, and should decrease costs. Completing the transition of the public Internet to IPv6 will take time.To read this FCC article in full, see: