Tag Archives: Akamai Technologies

Europe Leads With IPv6 Adoption, While DDoS Attacks Decline: Akamai

Europe continues to lead in IPV6 adoption with eight of the top ten countries, the latest Akamai State of the Internet report finds while DDoS attacks decrease by 20 percent quarter-over-quarter, but rise 27 percent year-over-year.The report, covering the first quarter of 2014, found more than 795 million unique IPv4 addresses from 240 countries/regions connected to the Akamai Intelligent Platform. This was 1.6 percent more than in the fourth quarter of 2013 and 7.8 percent more than a year prior. Quarterly growth was seen in six of the top 10 countries/regions. Brazil was again a standout with 12 percent and 50 percent of quarterly and yearly growth, respectively.European countries continued to lead in IPv6 adoption, taking eight of the top ten slots. Belgium grew nearly 200 percent quarter-over-quarter, jumping to first place with 14 percent of its traffic over IPv6. The United States and Peru were the only two countries from the Americas within the top 10, while Japan fell out of the top 10, leaving the Asia Pacific region unrepresented within the group.Looking at attack traffic and security, the report found the concentration of attacks decreased significantly as compared to the fourth quarter of 2013, with the top ten countries/regions originating 75 percent of observed attacks, down from 88 percent in the prior quarter.On Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack traffic, the report found most regions of the world saw a decline in reported DDoS attacks during the first quarter of 2014. The Americas continued to account for approximately 49 percent (139) of all attacks, followed by the Asia Pacific region with 31 percent (87) of attacks and Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) receiving the remaining 20 percent (57) of DDoS traffic. The enterprise sector saw a 49 percent quarter-over-quarter reduction in attack traffic, while public sector attack traffic grew by 34 percent, primarily attributable to attacks against government targets within Singapore.The report also covers global mobile connectivity (South Korea was fastest with average download speeds of 14.7 Mbps), 4K readiness (globally, 11 percent of connections were at speeds of 15 Mbps or above, fast enough to stream 4K TV, in the first quarter) and global average connection speeds and global broadband connectivity (global average connection speed climbed 1.8 percent to continue its steady growth over recent quarters, and while global average peak connection speeds dropped 8.6 percent in the first quarter of 2014, year-over-year trends remained positive with a 13 percent increase).For more information, see the Akamai news release below, or follow the link to the Akamai site where there are links to download further information. The news release was sourced from: www.akamai.com/html/about/press/releases/2014/press-062614.html.Akamai Releases First Quarter 2014 ‘State of the Internet’ Report

  • Global average connection speeds up 1.8%, while global average peak connection speeds drop 8.6%
  • Europe continues to lead in IPV6 adoption with eight of the top 10 countries
  • DDoS attacks decrease by 20% quarter-over-quarter, but rise 27% year-over-year
  • 11% of global connections are “4K ready”

Akamai Technologies, Inc., the leading provider of cloud services for delivering, optimizing and securing online content and business applications, today (26 June) released its First Quarter, 2014 State of the Internet Report. Based on data gathered from the Akamai Intelligent Platform™, the report provides insight into key global statistics such as connection speeds, overall attack traffic, network connectivity/availability issues, and traffic patterns across leading Web properties and digital media providers.The report also includes insight into NTP reflection and WordPress XML-RPC pingback attacks, the status of IPv4 exhaustion and IPv6 adoption, and global 4K readiness.Data and graphics from the First Quarter, 2014 State of the Internet Report can be found on the Akamai State of the Internet site and through the Akamai State of the Internet app for iPads and iPhones.Highlights from Akamai’s First Quarter, 2014 State of the Internet Report:Global Average Connection Speeds and Global Broadband Connectivity
The global average connection speed climbed 1.8% to continue its steady growth over recent quarters, and while global average peak connection speeds dropped 8.6% in the first quarter of 2014, year-over-year trends remained positive with a 13% increase.With the global average connection speed at 3.9 Mbps as of quarter-end, it is expected that the measurement will surpass the 4 Mbps broadband threshold next quarter. In the first quarter, nine of the top 10 countries/regions saw increases in average connection speeds, including an 8% jump for first place South Korea (23.6 Mbps), which is now 9 Mbps ahead of second place Japan (14.6 Mbps). Of the top 10 countries, only the Czech Republic experienced a decrease in average connection speed, remaining in eighth place with a 1.9% drop.With the global average connection speed at 3.9 Mbps as of quarter-end, it is expected that the measurement will surpass the 4 Mbps broadband threshold next quarter. In the first quarter, nine of the top 10 countries/regions saw increases in average connection speeds, including an 8% jump for first place South Korea (23.6 Mbps), which is now 9 Mbps ahead of second place Japan (14.6 Mbps). Of the top 10 countries, only the Czech Republic experienced a decrease in average connection speed, remaining in eighth place with a 1.9% drop.Year-over-year, global average connection speeds grew by 24% and increases were seen in all but seven countries/regions. Growth ranged from a low of 0.7% in Panama (2.6 Mbps) to a high of 196% in Sudan (3.2 Mbps). South Korea showed a 145% increase from the first quarter of 2013, a growth rate that nearly tripled Ireland’s 47% increase, which ranked second in year-over-year growth among the top 10.Increases in global average peak connection speeds during the first quarter of 2014 ranged from 0.2% in Colombia (16.8 Mbps) to 76% in Sudan (13.4 Mbps). A total of 43 qualifying countries/regions saw quarter-over-quarter increases in their average peak connection speeds, whereas 92 qualifying countries/regions saw declines.The year-over-year story remains positive. Since the first quarter of 2013, global average peak connection speeds increased 13%. Yearly growth rates among the top 10 countries/regions ranged from 0.3% in Hong Kong (66 Mbps) to an impressive 206% in Uruguay (45.4 Mbps).Global high broadband (>10 Mbps) adoption rates in the first quarter improved by 9.4% quarter-over-quarter, climbing above the 20% mark for the first time, to 21%. Once again, all of the countries/regions in the top 10 had high broadband adoption rates of 30%, with South Korea (77%), Japan (54%) and Switzerland (45%) topping the list. The year-over-year growth rate was 65%, with six of the top 10 countries/regions seeing increases of 50% or more.The global broadband (>4 Mbps) adoption rate grew a nominal 1.7% from the fourth quarter of 2013 to reach 56% in the first quarter of 2014. Of the countries/regions that qualified, 76 had higher broadband adoption rates this quarter – growth ranged from 0.2% in Canada (82% adoption) to 1,208% in Sudan (21% adoption). Since the first quarter of 2013, global broadband adoption rates grew by 24%, with extremely large year-over-year upticks seen in Kenya (1,100% to 4.9% adoption), Uruguay (3,298% to 34% adoption) and Sudan (5,926%).”While there continues to be room for improvement in high broadband adoption and average peak connection speeds in some areas of the world, the trends we’re seeing remain very positive,” said David Belson, the author of the report. “Steady year-over-year growth suggests that a strong, global foundation is being built for the enjoyment of next generation content and services like 4K video and increasingly connected homes and offices, and that connectivity will continue to evolve to support the growing demands these emerging technologies will place on the Internet.”4K Readiness
With 4K (Ultra HD) adaptive bitrate streams generally requiring between 10 – 20 Mbps of bandwidth, the new “4K Readiness” metric presented for the first time in the First Quarter, 2014 State of the Internet Report highlights the percentage of connections to Akamai at speeds above 15 Mbps, with the goal of identifying candidate geographies most likely to be able to sustain such streams. The findings do not account for other “readiness” factors, including availability of 4K-encoded content or 4K-capable televisions and players.Globally, 11% of connections were at speeds of 15 Mbps or above in the first quarter. Seven of the top 10 countries/regions on the 4K readiness list overlapped with those on the global high broadband connectivity list. South Korea led the list with 60% 4K readiness while Japan had 32% of its connections at that level in the first quarter. Of the top 10, the Czech Republic had the lowest level of 4K readiness with 17%. Overall, 47 countries/regions qualified for inclusion.Attack Traffic and Security
Akamai maintains a distributed set of unadvertised agents deployed across the Internet to log connection attempts that the company classifies as attack traffic. Based on the data collected by these agents, Akamai is able to identify the top countries from which attack traffic originates, as well as the top ports targeted by these attacks. It is important to note, however, that the originating country as identified by the source IP address may not represent the nation in which an attacker resides.During the first quarter of 2014, Akamai observed attack traffic originating from 194 unique countries/regions – six more than the fourth quarter of 2013. China was again responsible for originating the most attacks, but dropped slightly from 43% in the fourth quarter of 2013 to 41% in the first quarter of 2014. The United States followed in second place, but also saw a decline from 19% to 11%, and Indonesia saw a slight uptick from 5.7% to 6.8% to secure third place. Overall, the concentration of attacks decreased significantly as compared to the fourth quarter of 2013, with the top 10 countries/regions originating 75% of observed attacks, down from 88% in the prior quarter.Port 445 (Microsoft-DS) remained the most targeted port in the first quarter of 2014, but the associated attack traffic volume was down to 14% of observed attack traffic (from 30% in the third quarter of 2013). Conversely, Port 5000 (Universal Plug & Play/UPnP) saw a significant increase during the quarter – from less than a tenth of a percent in the fourth quarter of 2013 to 12% this quarter – an increase of more than 100 times. Port 23 (Telnet) ranked third with 8.7% of observed attack traffic.Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack Traffic
In addition to observations on attack traffic, the State of the Internet Report includes insight into DDoS attacks based on reports from Akamai’s customers. The number of DDoS attacks reported in the first quarter of 2014 declined to 283 from 346 in the last quarter of 2013. This represents a 20% decrease quarter-over-quarter and a 27% increase year-over-year.Most regions of the world saw a decline in reported DDoS attacks during the first quarter of 2014. The Americas continued to account for approximately 49% (139) of all attacks, followed by the Asia Pacific region with 31% (87) of attacks and Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) receiving the remaining 20% (57) of DDoS traffic. The enterprise sector saw a 49% quarter-over-quarter reduction in attack traffic, while public sector attack traffic grew by 34%, primarily attributable to attacks against government targets within Singapore.IPv4 and IPv6
In the first quarter of 2014, more than 795 million unique IPv4 addresses from 240 countries/regions connected to the Akamai Intelligent Platform. This was 1.6% more than in the fourth quarter of 2013 and 7.8% more than a year prior. Quarterly growth was seen in six of the top 10 countries/regions. Brazil was again a standout with 12% and 50% of quarterly and yearly growth, respectively.European countries continued to lead in IPv6 adoption, taking eight of the top 10 slots. Belgium grew nearly 200% quarter-over-quarter, jumping to first place with 14% of its traffic over IPv6. The United States and Peru were the only two countries from the Americas within the top 10, while Japan fell out of the top 10, leaving the Asia Pacific region unrepresented within the group.The report also lists the top 20 network providers based on their number of IPv6 requests made to Akamai during the first quarter. The highest request volumes came from cable and wireless providers in the United States. Verizon Wireless had the highest percentage (45%) of requests over IPv6, while 12 other providers also had more than 10% of their requests to Akamai over IPv6 during the first quarter. European providers were also heavily represented, including three providers from Belgium with strong showings. KDDI (Japan) and Telekom Malaysia were the only two providers to represent the Asia Pacific region, while Telefonica del Peru was the only South American provider on the list.Mobile Connectivity
In the first quarter of 2014, average mobile connection speeds ranged from 1.0 Mbps in Argentina to 14.7 Mbps in South Korea. Though the latter was the only country/region with average mobile connection speeds above the 10 Mbps high-broadband threshold, 20 countries/regions had average connection speeds above the 4 Mbps threshold. A total of 56 countries/regions qualified for inclusion in the mobile section. Note that starting with the First Quarter, 2014 State of the Internet Report, mobile connectivity is being aggregated at a country level, rather than at a provider level.Average peak mobile connection speeds among qualifying countries spanned a broad range, from 114.2 Mbps in Australia down to just 5.0 Mbps in Iran. In total, 43 countries showed average peak connection speeds above 10 Mbps.The State of the Internet Report now includes a broadband adoption statistic within the Mobile Connectivity section. This quarter, Ukraine had the highest level of mobile broadband adoption, with 89% of mobile connections to Akamai from the country at speeds above 4 Mbps.About the Akamai State of the Internet Report
Each quarter, Akamai publishes a “State of the Internet” report. This report includes data gathered from across the Akamai Intelligent Platform about attack traffic, broadband adoption, mobile connectivity and other relevant topics concerning the Internet and its usage, as well as trends seen in this data over time. To learn more and to access the archive of past reports, please visit www.akamai.com/stateoftheinternet. To download the figures from the First Quarter, 2014 State of the Internet Report, please visit: http://wwwns.akamai.com/soti/soti_q114_figures.zip.About Akamai
Akamai® is the leading provider of cloud services for delivering, optimizing and securing online content and business applications. At the core of the Company’s solutions is the Akamai Intelligent Platform™ providing extensive reach, coupled with first class reliability, security, visibility and expertise. Akamai removes the complexities of connecting the increasingly mobile world, supporting 24/7 consumer demand, and enabling enterprises to securely leverage the cloud. To learn more about how Akamai is accelerating the pace of innovation in a hyperconnected world, please visit www.akamai.com or blogs.akamai.com, and follow @Akamai on Twitter.

Reported DDoS Attack Traffic Grows 75% In One Year; Europe Leads In IPv6 Adoption: Akamai

Akamai Technologies logoAkamai Technologies released their Fourth Quarter 2013 State of the Internet Report that found reported DDoS attack traffic grew by 23 percent quarter-over-quarter and 75 percent from fourth quarter of 2012. Other main findings were the average connection speeds in the top ten countries/regions is now at or above the “high broadband” threshold of ten Mbps and that global average peak connection speed experiences 38 percent growth in 2013. Hong Kong topped the list with the highest average peak connection speed of 68 Mbps.

When looking at Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack traffic, the State of the Internet Report included insights into DDoS attacks based on reports from Akamai’s customers. Although the number of DDoS attacks reported by Akamai customers declined from the second quarter (318) to the third quarter of 2013 (281), reported attacks increased 23 percent from the third quarter to the fourth quarter (346) of the same year. In total, customers reported 1,153 DDoS attacks in 2013 – a 50 percent increase from 768 in 2012.

Enterprise and commerce continued to be the industries targeted most frequently by the reported DDoS attacks in the fourth quarter, at 159 and 82 attacks, respectively. Together, they account for just under 70 percent of the reported attacks during the quarter, while slightly less than half of the total attacks were reported by customers in the Americas.

In the Third Quarter, 2013 State of the Internet Report, Akamai started looking at the likelihood of a company experiencing repeat attacks after an initial DDoS attack. In the third quarter, Akamai reported this as a one in four probability. In the fourth quarter of 2013, the chance of a repeated attack increased significantly to just over one in three (35%), meaning that 56 of the 162 organisations that were attacked suffered repeated threats throughout the quarter.

In February, Akamai acquired Prolexic Technologies, Inc., a company that provides cloud-based security solutions for protecting data centers and enterprise IP applications from DDoS attacks. As a result, future State of the Internet Reports will include insights using additional observations from Prolexic’s Quarterly DDoS Attack Report. Note that unless otherwise specified, observations included in the respective reports are based on separate and distinct sets of DDoS attacks.

On IPv6 adoption, the United States and selected European countries continue to lead the world in terms of IPv6 adoption, with Europe again having seven of the top ten leading countries. Japan and Peru are the only countries from their respective regions to make the top ten list. Double-digit percentage growth rates were seen in eight of the top ten countries, with Peru and Germany seeing the largest increases, at 41 percent and 43 percent, respectively. The lowest rate of growth was seen in Romania, which increased by nearly eight percent quarter-over-quarter.

Colleges and universities continue to be early adopters of IPv6, with moderate to large quarterly increases in adoption rates seen across most of the top 10. Iowa State, the University of Vienna Austria and the University of Saskatchewan all saw double-digit quarterly percentage increases.

On global average broadband connection speeds, the report found they continued to improve, with a quarterly increase of 5.5 percent, reaching 3.8 Mbps. Despite this improvement, half of the countries/regions listed among the top ten in global average connection speeds – including the top four countries/regions – actually saw nominal declines quarter–over–quarter, ranging from a loss of 0.7 percent in the Netherlands to a drop of 6.7 percent in Latvia. Despite a 1.1 percent decline in average connection speed, South Korea held the top spot from quarter to quarter, reporting the highest average connection speed of 21.9 Mbps.

On mobile connectivity, in the fourth quarter of 2013, average connection speeds on surveyed mobile network providers ranged from a high of 8.9 Mbps (Russian mobile provider RU-1) down to a low of 0.6 Mbps (mobile provider ZA-1 in South Africa). The high is down just slightly from the 9.5 Mbps reported in the third quarter of 2013.

To check out more information, see the Akamai Technologies news release at:
www.akamai.com/html/about/press/releases/2014/press-042314.html

Akamai Releases Fourth Quarter 2012 ‘State of the Internet’ Report

[news release] Akamai Technologies, Inc., the leading cloud platform for helping enterprises provide secure, high-performing user experiences on any device, anywhere, today released its Fourth Quarter, 2012 State of the Internet Report. Based on data gathered from the Akamai Intelligent Platform™, the report provides insight into key global statistics including connection speeds, attack traffic, and network connectivity and availability, among many others.The Fourth Quarter, 2012 State of the Internet Report includes new observations on Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, analysis of Phase II of the Operation Ababil attacks, and examinations of Internet disruptions in Syria, Bangladesh, and Senegal. The report also reviews mobile browser usage by network connection type collected by Akamai IO.Highlights from Akamai’s Fourth Quarter, 2012 Report:Global Internet Penetration
Nearly 700 million unique IPv4 addresses from 240 countries/regions connected to the Akamai Intelligent Platform – 4.2 percent more than in the third quarter of 2012 and 13 percent more than in the fourth quarter of 2011. Since a single IP address can represent multiple individuals in some cases – such as when users access the Web through a firewall or proxy server – Akamai estimates the total number of unique Web users connecting to its platform during the quarter to be well over one billion.Quarterly growth among all of the top 10 countries ranged from 1.1 percent in Japan to 5.1 percent in Russia. Among the full set of countries/regions worldwide that connected to the Akamai Intelligent Platform, 75 percent saw a quarterly increase in unique IP address counts.Year-over-year, the global unique IP address count increased by nearly 10 percent, or more than 71 million, compared to the fourth quarter of 2011. Among the top 10 countries, yearly growth ranged from less than 1 percent in South Korea and Japan (0.2 percent and 0.8 percent, respectively) to double-digit growth rates in Russia (13 percent), China (19 percent), Italy (21 percent) and Brazil (33 percent). Globally, 79 percent of countries/regions had higher unique IP address counts year-over-year.Attack Traffic and Top Ports Attacked
Akamai maintains a distributed set of unadvertised agents deployed across the Internet that log connection attempts, which the company classifies as attack traffic. Based on data collected by these agents, Akamai is able to identify the top countries from which attack traffic originates, as well as the top ports targeted by these attacks. It is important to note, however, that the originating country as identified by the source IP address may not represent the nation in which an attacker resides. For example, an individual in the United States may be launching attacks from compromised systems in China.Akamai observed attack traffic from 177 unique countries/regions during the fourth quarter of 2012, down from 180 in the third quarter. China again maintained its position as the single largest volume source of observed traffic at 41 percent of the total, up from 33 percent in the prior quarter. The United States remained in the number two spot despite a drop in observed attack traffic from 13 percent to 10 percent in the fourth quarter. Turkey took over Russia’s number three spot with 4.7 percent.The top 10 countries/regions generated 75 percent of the observed attack traffic during the quarter. China and the United States were responsible for slightly more than 50 percent of total attack traffic.Port 445 (Microsoft-DS) remained the most targeted port in the fourth quarter, receiving 29 percent of attack traffic. Port 23 (Telnet) was again second at 7.2 percent.Observations on DDoS Attacks
For the first time, the report includes insight into DDoS attacks reported by Akamai customers. Data from this quarter’s report will serve as a baseline for future comparisons. Akamai customers reported 768 DDoS attacks in 2012, up more than 200 percent from 2011. Of those, 35 percent targeted companies in the Commerce sector and 22 percent focused on Media and Entertainment companies. Enterprise companies, which include financial services, were subject to 20 percent of reported attacks; 14 percent targeted High Tech and nine percent of reported attacks were directed toward Public Sector agencies. The 768 attacks were reported by 413 unique organizations, indicating that many organizations were targeted more than once – some significantly more.Operation Ababil, Phase II
As highlighted in the report for the third quarter of 2012, Akamai was involved in protecting some of the organizations targeted by the “Operation Ababil” series of DDoS attacks. Those attacks continued through October before pausing until December 25, at which point they carried on into January of 2013.As in the first phase, attackers continued to leverage the BroBot botnet to launch their attacks, and have varied the attacks in an attempt to evade filtering, primarily through the altering of query strings, user-agents, and targeted URLs. BroBot nodes have been observed sending traffic bursts at a rate of up to 10,000 requests per minute per node, and as many as 18 million attack requests per second.Global Average and Peak Connection Speeds
Quarter-over-quarter, the global average connection speed rose 5 percent to 2.9 Mbps. Further, a total of 98 countries/regions that qualified for inclusion saw average connection speeds increase from the third quarter of 2012, ranging from 0.1 percent growth in the Netherlands and Luxembourg to 23 percent growth in Côte d’Ivoire.Year-over-year, average connection speeds grew by 25 percent, with nine of the top 10 countries also demonstrating growth. In fact, only the Netherlands (3.3 percent), Hong Kong (5.4 percent) and Japan (19 percent) reported growth below 20 percent between 2011 and 2012.Global average peak connection speeds enjoyed a quarter-over-quarter increase of 4.6 percent to 16.6 Mbps. Hong Kong again claimed the highest peak connection speed at 57.5 Mbps, a rise of 6.2 percent from last quarter.Year-over-year, global average peak connection speeds once again demonstrated significant improvement, rising 35 percent.Global broadband (>4 Mbps) and high broadband (>10 Mbps) adoption improved by 2.7 and 2.1 percent respectively for the quarter. Global broadband adoption rates rose slightly to 42 percent, while high broadband remained at 11 percent.”Looking back across the year, we observed strong growth in our key connectivity metrics around the world. We believe that this points to greater availability of broadband connectivity, as well as increased speeds on those connections. This is supported as well by the long-term trends observed over the five-year history of the State of the Internet Report,” explained David Belson, the report’s editor. “The combination of improved broadband availability and higher speeds should open the door for greater innovation in how the Internet is used by both businesses and individuals around the globe.”Mobile Connectivity
The fourth quarter of 2012 saw average connection speeds on surveyed mobile network operators range from a high of just over 8.0 Mbps to a low of 345 kbps. Eight providers demonstrated average connection speeds in the “broadband” (>4 Mbps) range. Sixty-four more providers delivered average connection speeds greater than 1 Mbps. Data collected by Ericsson shows that mobile data traffic doubled from the fourth quarter of 2011 to the fourth quarter of 2012, and grew 28 percent between the third and fourth quarter of 2012.Mobile devices using Android Webkit accounted for the largest percentage of requests (35.3 percent) from devices on cellular networks connecting to the Akamai Intelligent Platform. Devices using Apple Mobile Safari represented 32.6 percent. When analyzed across all network types, the ratios were markedly different, with Apple Mobile Safari accounting for 58.7 percent of requests, and Android Webkit responsible for 21.7 percent.About the Akamai State of the Internet report
Each quarter, Akamai publishes a “State of the Internet” report. This report includes data gathered from across the Akamai Intelligent Platform about attack traffic, broadband adoption, mobile connectivity and other relevant topics concerning the Internet and its usage, as well as trends seen in this data over time. To learn more and to access the archive of past reports, please visit www.akamai.com/stateoftheinternet. To download the figures from the Fourth Quarter, 2012 State of the Internet report, please visit http://wwwns.akamai.com/soti/soti_q412_figures.zip.About Akamai
Akamai® is the leading cloud platform for helping enterprises provide secure, high-performing user experiences on any device, anywhere. At the core of the Company’s solutions is the Akamai Intelligent Platform™ providing extensive reach, coupled with unmatched reliability, security, visibility and expertise. Akamai removes the complexities of connecting the increasingly mobile world, supporting 24/7 consumer demand, and enabling enterprises to securely leverage the cloud. To learn more about how Akamai is accelerating the pace of innovation in a hyperconnected world, please visit www.akamai.com or blogs.akamai.com, and follow @Akamai on Twitter.This Akamai news release was sourced from:
www.akamai.com/html/about/press/releases/2013/press_042313.html

IPv6 Adoption Growing Finds Akamai State of The Internet Report

IPv6 adoption continues to grow with Akamai Technologies observing a 2.1 per cent increase (from the third quarter of 2011) globally in the number of unique IPv4 addresses connecting to Akamai’s network, growing to over 628 million, in their most recent State of the Internet report.In the fourth quarter of 2011, over 628 million unique IPv4 addresses, from 236 countries/regions, connected to the Akamai Intelligent Platform – 2.1% more than in the third quarter of 2011, and nearly 13% more than in the fourth quarter of 2010. Although we see more than 600 million unique IPv4 addresses, Akamai believes that we see well over one billion Web users. This is because, in some cases, multiple individuals may be represented by a single IPv4 address (or a small number of IPv4 addresses), because they access the Web through a firewall or proxy server. Conversely, individual users can have multiple IPv4 addresses associated with them, due to their use of multiple connected devices.IPv4 exhaustion continues with the number of available IPv4 addresses continued to decline, as Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) allocated/assigned blocks of addresses to requesting organisations within their respective territories.The report notes austerity measures employed by APNIC as it reached its final /8 (16.8 million IPv4 addresses) block on 15 April leading to APNIC allocating the lowest volume of IPv4 addresses assigned during the fourth quarter. Of the other RIRs, AFRINIC’s IPv4 exhaustion proceeded slowly during the fourth quarter as well while LACNIC allocated/assigned over 2.5 million IPv4 addresses during the quarter, with over half a million allocated on November 7. In contrast, RIPE was significantly more active, assigning or allocating more than 200,000 IPv4 addresses on many days during the quarter, peaking at 883,968 IPv4 addresses on 1 December. However, in comparison, ARIN’s activity was much more subdued during the quarter.Recognising that IPv4 address space is a valuable commodity, the report notes bankrupt bookseller Borders announced a plan in December 2011 to sell 65,536 IPv4 addresses (a “/16″”) to Cerner, a healthcare software vendor for $786,432, or $12 per address. Akamai believes this was the second publicly announced sale of IPv4 space, after Nortel’s sale of $7.5 million worth of addresses to Microsoft in April.Projected exhaustion dates for the various registries range from August 2012 for RIPE to all the way out in October 2014 for AFRINIC.On IPv6 adoption, the report notes there were higher rates of growth seen during the second quarter of 2011, and commensurately lower growth rates seen in the third and fourth quarters that may be related to preparations for World IPv6 Day (8 June, 2011), organised by the Internet Society as a 24-hour “test flight” of IPv6 for real-world use under controlled conditions. Building on the success of this event, the Internet Society is coordinating World IPv6 Launch on June 6, 2012.The report examines a range of issues dealing with the internet. One is broadband adoption. The report found global average connection speed was 2.3 Mbps, and the global average peak connection speed remained 11.7 Mbps.At a country level, South Korea had the highest average connection speed at 17.5 Mbps, as well as the highest average peak connection speed, at 47.9 Mbps. At a city level, cities in South Korea and Japan continued to hold many of the top spots in the rankings of highest average and average peak connection speeds.Globally, high broadband (>5 Mbps) adoption declined slightly to 27 per cent in the fourth quarter, and South Korea continued to have the highest level of high broadband adoption, growing to 83 per cent. Global broadband (>2 Mbps) adoption remained at 66 per cent, with the Isle of Man having the highest level of broadband adoption, at 97 per cent. Global narrowband (<256 kbps) adoption continued to decline, losing a bit more than one percent quarter-over-quarter, but staying at 2.5 per cent.On mobile broadband and connectivity, the report observed overall fourth quarter attack traffic from known mobile networks increased slightly, with the top ten countries generating 78% of observed attacks. The list of top targeted ports remained mostly consistent with the third quarter -- Port 8080 (HTTP Alternate) replaced Port 4899 (Remote Administrator) among the top 10. Port 445 remained the target of an overwhelming majority of observed attacks as compared to other ports in the top 10.In the fourth quarter of 2011, average connection speeds on known mobile providers ranged from 5.2 Mbps down to 163 kbps. Average peak connection speeds during the quarter ranged from 23.4 Mbps to 1.6 Mbps. Looking at mobile content consumption, users on eight mobile providers consumed, on average, more than one gigabyte (1 GB) of content from Akamai per month, while users on an additional 75 mobile providers downloaded more than 100 MB of content from Akamai per month during the fourth quarter.More detailed information on the above and much more are available in Akamai Technologies’ State of the Internet report. A news release of the highlights is available from www.akamai.com/html/about/press/releases/2012/press_043012.html while a 50+ page report is available for download from www.akamai.com/stateoftheinternet.